The chemical industry is developing intensively, represented by a number of large AECC plants, largely controlled by British capital; at the factories in Modderfontein (near Johannesburg), Somerset West (near Cape Town), Umbogintwini (near Durban), etc. production of sulfuric acid, explosives, artificial fertilizers, basic chemicals, pharmaceuticals, synthetic materials was established. On the basis of the phosphorite deposit in Phalaborwa, a superphosphate plant operates. The main producer of caustic soda and chlorine is the plant in Klipfontein (near Johannesburg). Enterprises of paint and varnish industry are located in East London, Durban, and Germiston. The production of tires is done in Durban, Port Elizabeth, and Pietermaritzburg. They are owned by the transnational monopolies Goodyear, Firestone, and Dunlop, which are part of the turnkey project. The refining industry is dominated by Mobil, Caltex, Shell and others; the capacity of 4 oil refineries is 22 million tons (at the beginning of 1977), they are based on imported oil. Large oil refineries are located in Cape Town and Durban.
The production of artificial liquid fuels is concentrated at the plant in Sasolburg (in the S. Orange province) owned by the state corporation ‘SASOL’; its products provide the country’s demand for liquid fuel by 9-10%. Paraffin, resin, ammonium sulfate, etc. are produced here side by side. German factories are located near Cape Town, Johannesburg and other large cities. Production of cement is 7 million tons (as of 1977). The food industry (production of vegetables, fruits, and canned fish, winemaking and brewing, sugaring and other industries) is widely developed. Significant development in the post-war years had the textile industry – wool spinning (in Durban, Johannesburg, Eitana, etc.), the production of woolen and cotton fabrics (in Cape Town, Johannesburg, East London, Port Elizabeth, Benoni, Barberton, etc.), blankets (in Harrismith), synthetic fibers (in Umkomaas). The industry of South Africa is characterized by a combination of the latest industrial methods with the extensive use of manual labor based on the merciless exploitation of Africans.