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The refinery is an industrial enterprise, the main function of which is the processing of oil into gasoline, aviation kerosene, fuel oil, diesel fuel, lubricating oils, bitumen, petroleum coke, raw materials for petrochemicals.
The refinery’s production cycle usually consists of the preparation of raw materials, the primary distillation of petroleum and the secondary processing of petroleum fractions: catalytic cracking, reforming, coking, visbreaking, hydro cracking, hydro treatment, and mixing of components of finished petroleum products.
The main products of the refinery are gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, fuel oil.
Oil refineries are a combination of oil processing facilities, as well as auxiliary and maintenance services that ensure the normal operation of the enterprise and the production of petroleum products. Refineries produce petroleum products and raw materials for petrochemicals and in recent years also consumer goods. The main characteristics of the refinery are processing capacity, the range of products, and the depth of oil refining.
Modern oil refineries are characterized by a large capacity of an enterprise as a whole (estimated in millions of tons per year) and technological processes. The capacity of an oil refinery depends on many factors, primarily on the demand for oil products in the economic area of their consumption, the availability of raw materials and energy resources, the range of transportation and the proximity of neighboring similar enterprises. Along with the average factories processing 5-15 million tons of oil per year, there are factories-giants that process 20-25 million tons per year, and small factories that process 3-5 million tons per year.
Reliance petroleum limited
The assortment of produced oil products, as a rule, has about a hundred names. In accordance with the products manufactured, the refinery is classified into the following groups:
- refinery of fuel profile
- oil and gas refinery
- refinery of fuel and petrochemical profile (petrochemical plants)
- oil-and-oil-petrochemical refinery.
The largest distribution is the refinery’s fuel profile since motor fuels account for the largest percentage of consumption. Complex processing of petroleum raw materials (i.e. fuel oil-petrochemical) in comparison with highly specialized processing, for example, pure fuel, is more effective.