During the crane operation, the operator receives detailed instructions from the slinger through various types of signaling – crane signals. The most common and demanded today is the sign signaling, which is used in most cases when lifting equipment works. There are even points of heavy equipment hand signals. This type of signaling is implemented either with the use of flags or without them.
The use of flags is justified in cases where the slinger and the crane operator can see each other well. If visibility is not sufficient for high-quality signal transmission by flags, then it is necessary to use telephone or radio communication facilities. If telephone or radio communication is unavailable for one reason or another, the signaling is assigned to a specially trained signalman – he shall use the crane hand and arm signals. For the position of a special signalman, only a slinger with a high level of skill can be appointed. The appointment of a signalman is the responsibility of an official who ensures the safety of carrying out lifting operations at the site: it is universal construction hand signals. In order to raise awareness, the slingers are dressed in a uniform consisting of a yellow helmet, a yellow waistcoat, a blue shirt, and a red armband.
Rules of operation of cranes
Compliance with the Safety Regulations when working on cranes is a prerequisite for trouble-free operation. Any accident is the result of omissions or violation of established rules. Traumatism is also a consequence of non-compliance with these rules.
Cranes designated for the operation must be serviceable and must pass the survey and inspections established by the relevant regulations. In the presence of defects that can cause an accident, the cranes cannot be operated.
To make a crane work, the driver should only rely at signals of a grab-gripper or a rigger. If the input signal is incorrect or unclear, then it is prohibited to perform an operation on this signal. The driver is obliged to fulfill the “Stop” signal, whoever made it.
There are special tables that clearly describe all the existing commands and gestures for crane operators in different situations while working.
The signaling instructions should be posted on the sidewalls of the outside of the crane body and inside the body. The turning part of the crane, the back and sidewalls of the body should be marked with red circles with a white edging, and at night, installed lanterns with a red fire should work.
After the end of the job, the driver is obliged to lower the load and put the crane in the place intended for its parking, brake the handbrake of movement, and put brake shoes under the wheels. It is not permissible to leave the crane on a section with a slope. For electric cranes, it is necessary to disconnect the main switch in the body of the crane and lock it. Remove the voltage from the flexible cable if the tap is powered from an external source. The control knobs shall be set to zero.
Before leaving the crane, the team must clean all equipment from dust, dirt, from excessive lubrication, after which the operator must inspect the crane and record its condition in the acceptance book of the charge.